Besaran dan Satuan


Gelombang Elektromagnetik

Gelombang Elektromagnetik adalah gelombang yang dapat merambat  walau tidak ada medium. Energi elektromagnetik merambat dalam gelombang dengan beberapa karakter yang bisa diukur, yaitu: panjang gelombang/wavelength, frekuensi, amplitude/amplitude, kecepatan. Amplitudo adalah tinggi gelombang, sedangkan panjang gelombang adalah jarak antara dua puncak. Frekuensi adalah jumlah gelombang yang melalui suatu titik dalam satu satuan waktu. Frekuensi tergantung dari kecepatan merambatnya gelombang. Karena kecepatan energi elektromagnetik adalah konstan (kecepatan cahaya), panjang gelombang dan frekuensi berbanding terbalik. Semakin panjang suatu gelombang, semakin rendah frekuensinya, dan semakin pendek suatu gelombang semakin tinggi frekuensinya.

Energi elektromagnetik dipancarkan, atau dilepaskan, oleh semua masa di alam semesta pada level yang berbedabeda. Semakin tinggi level energi dalam suatu sumber energi, semakin rendah panjang gelombang dari energi yang dihasilkan, dan semakin tinggi frekuensinya. Perbedaan karakteristik energi gelombang digunakan untuk mengelompokkan energi elektromagnetik.

Ciri-ciri gelombang elektromagnetik :

1.   Perubahan medan listrik dan medan magnetik terjadi pada saat yang bersamaan, sehingga kedua medan memiliki harga maksimum dan minimum pada saat yang sama dan pada tempat yang sama.

2.      Arah medan listrik dan medan magnetik saling tegak lurus dan keduanya tegak lurus terhadap arah rambat gelombang.

Contoh spektrum elektromagnetik

Sinar X

Sinar X mempunyai frekuensi antara 10 Hz sampai 10 Hz . panjang gelombangnya sangat pendek yaitu 10 cm sampai 10 cm. meskipun seperti itu tapi sinar X mempunyai daya tembus kuat, dapat menembus buku tebal, kayu tebal beberapa sentimeter dan pelat aluminium setebal 1 cm.

Contoh penerapan gelombang elektromagnetik dalam kehidupan sehari-hari :

a. Radio

Radio energi adalah bentuk level energi elektromagnetik terendah, dengan kisaran panjang gelombang dari ribuan kilometer sampai kurang dari satu meter. Penggunaan paling banyak adalah komunikasi, untuk meneliti luar angkasa dan sistem radar. Radar berguna untuk mempelajari pola cuaca, badai, membuat peta 3D permukaan bumi, mengukur curah hujan, pergerakan es di daerah kutub dan memonitor lingkungan. Panjang gelombang radar berkisar antara 0.8 – 100 cm.

RADIO

b. Sinar X

Sinar X ini biasa digunakan dalam bidang kedokteran untuk memotret kedudukan tulang dalam badan terutama untuk menentukan tulang yang patah. Akan tetapi penggunaan sinar X harus hati-hati sebab jaringan sel-sel manusia dapat rusak akibat penggunaan sinar X yang terlalu lama.

Sinar X memberi sumbangan besar dan kemajuan dunia kedokteran

Kelistrikan

Kelistrikan adalah sifat benda yang muncul dari adanya muatan listrik. Listrik, dapat juga diartikan sebagai berikut:

  • Listrik adalah kondisi dari partikel subatomik tertentu, seperti elektron dan proton, yang menyebabkan penarikan dan penolakan gaya di antaranya.
  • Listrik adalah sumber energi yang disalurkan melalui kabel. Arus listrik timbul karena muatan listrik mengalir dari saluran positif ke saluran negatif.

Bersama dengan magnetisme, listrik membentuk interaksi fundamental yang dikenal sebagai elektromagnetisme. Listrik memungkinkan terjadinya banyak fenomena fisika yang dikenal luas, seperti petir, medan listrik, dan arus listrik. Listrik digunakan dengan luas di dalam aplikasi-aplikasi industri seperti elektronik dan tenaga listrik.

CONTOH KELISTRIKAN:

Petir adalah contoh listrik alami yang paling dramatis.

Kalor

Kalor disebut juga panas. Kalor di perlukan untuk membantu pekerjaan, pembakaran menimbulkan panas.

Panas atau kalor merupakan salah satu bentuk tenaga.

Energi kalor yang terjadi jika suhu tinggi mengalir ke suhu rendah.

3 macam perpindahan kalor:

  1. Konduksi (Hantaran)
  2. Konveksi (Aliran)
  3. Radiasi (Pancaran)

1.Konduksi(Hantaran)

Dalam Konduksi , kalor di pindahkan dari satu sistem ke sistem yang lain melalui rambatan kalor di dalam sebuah penghantar atau konduktor dari satu ujung lain yang suhunya berbeda. Jadi, dalam proses perpindahan kalor melalui konduksi perlu adanya medium penghantar atau konduktor kalor.

CONTOH:

Sendok makan yang bagian bulatnya di dekatkankan dengan api, sedangkan, pada bagian ujung sendok makan tersebut di pegang oleh tangan. Tidak lama kemudian, kita akan merasakan panas, yang di sebabkan adanya perpindahan kalor dari bulatan sendok ke ujung sendok yang kita pegang tadi.

2.Konveksi (Aliran)

Perpindahan Panas secara konveksi terjadi akibat adanya aliran partikel-partikel medium penghantar panas. Sehingga kalor di pindahkan melalui aliran partikel-partikel medium.

Terjadinya aliran partikel-partikel medium akibat adanya perbedaan massa jenis medium di tempat yang bersuhu tinggi dengan massa jenis medium di tempat yang bersuhu rendah. Arah aliran konveksi adalah dari medium yang bermassa jenis kecil (bersuhu tinngi) ke medium yamg bermassa jenis besar(bersuhu rendah).

CONTOH:

Air yang berada tepat di atas api mendapat panas terlebih dahulu. Air yang panas ini lalu naik ke atas dan tempat yang ditinggalkannyadiisi oleh air di sampingnya.

3.Radiasi (Pancaran)

Perpindahan kalor (panas) secara radiasi tidak memerlukan medium, meskipun radiasi dapat terjadi dalam suatu medium.

Kalor akan dipancarkan ke segala arah di dalam ruang tanpa perlu adanya penghantar. Arah pancaran (radiasi) kalor adalah ke segala arah di dalam ruang.

CONTOH:

Orang yang berada dekat api dapat merasakan panasnya api. Panas tersebut berpindah secara radiasi.

PEMUAIAN

Pemuaian adalah bertambahnya ukuran suatu benda karena pengaruh perubahan suhu atau bertambahnya ukuran suatu benda karena menerima kalor.

Pemuaian terjadi pada 3 zat yaitu pemuaian pada zat padat, pada zat cair, dan pada zat gas.

Contoh Pemuaian:

Derap roda-roda kereta api tentu menjadi hal yang mengiringi perjalanan kamu. Kenapa laju kereta api tidak “mulus” seperti pada kendaraan mobil misalnya. Apa yang menyebabkan selalu ada suara derap roda pada rel? Dan kenapa selalu terdapat “celah” pada sambungan rel kereta api?

Sudah menjadi hukum alam, bahwa semua benda akan “memuai” jika di panaskan dan “menyusut” jika didinginkan. Sedikit perkecualian (anomali) terjadi pada air (water), air memiliki volume terkecil pada suhu 4oC, artinya jika kita menaikkan dan menurunkan suhu dari titik 4oC, yang terjadi adalah keduanya akan menyebabkan air “memuai”.

Dan juga ban sepeda yang di letakkan di bawah terik matahari akan mengembang itu juga salah satu pemuaian.

Contoh pemuaian yang lain adalah pada pemasangan bingkai jendela kaca. Coba kamu amati bagaimana tukang kayu membuat bingkai kaca. Terdapat ruang diantara tepi lembaran kaca dengan bingkainya. Celah ini dimaksudkan untuk ruang bagi kaca saat memuai, sehingga jendela kaca kita tidak pecah berkeping-keping saat cuaca sedang panas.

Suhu dalam Kehidupan sehari-hari

Apa ya suhu itu?
Suhu menunjukkan derajat panas benda. Semakin tinggi suhu suatu benda, semakin panas benda tersebut.
Tanpa kita sadari kita menemui itu suhu, walaupun hanya dapat di rasakan.
Untuk riset suhu dalam kehidupan sehari-hri kali ini adalah,
Ruang Sekretariat Gereja saya (Lt.2) dan ruang Ibadah (Lt.1)



(Gambar Ruang Ibadah)

(Gambar Ruang Sekretariat Gereja)

Nha, hari minggu tgl.18 april kemaren kami dapat jadwal tuk nari tambourine di gereja, sungguh luar biasa suhu di Lt.1 itu sangat panas, apakah itu perkara kostum yang kami pakai atau bukan? Wah..saya bingung juga.
Yang pastinya di lt.1 membuat saya kepanasan, keringat bercucuran membasahi wajah yang sudah di hias cantik (hahaa),baju pun basah kuyub seperti habis mandi keringat. Sungguh saya tak tahan. Selesai kami nari, untungnya kami gak terlalu lama di bawah, akhirnya saya di ajak teman saya pergi ke ruang sekretariat atas.
Awalnya, saya bingung dan saya bertanya “Kenapa ke ruang sekretariat atas segala?”.
Dia menjawab: “ayoo..ikut aja”.
Saya ikut.
Ternyata, dia bilang: ”Di sini dingin Morae, gak panas kaya di bawah!”.
Saya bilang: “Oh Pantas..ke sini segala. Tapi, memang dingin,adem“.
Dan dia berkata lagi: “Lagian enak juga buat foto-foto ria”.
Hedeeh..Saya berkata lagi: “Ke sini ni buat mengademkan tubuh atau pengen befoto-foto?” .
Katanya: “Dua-duanya, khan habis mengademkan tubuh langsung kita eksis berfoto-foto..hahaha(tertawa)”.
Saya hanya bisa terdiam dan ngomong dalam hati..”Macam-macam aja”.
Menurut saya dari riset yang saya lakukan adalah
1. Suhu menunjukkan energi yang dimiliki oleh suatu benda. Setiap atom dalam suatu benda masing-masing bergerak, baik itu dalam bentuk perpindahan maupun gerakan di tempat berupa getaran. Makin tingginya energi atom-atom penyusun benda, makin tinggi suhu benda tersebut.
Oleh sebab itu, Suhu di ruangan bawah itu panas sekali .

2. Begitu juga sebaliknya dengan nomor 2 ini, mengapa ruangan sekretariat gereja atas suhunya dingin karena makin rendahnya energi atom-atom penyusun benda, maka makin rendah pula suhu benda tersebut.

e-primbon Morae Habella Sintha (X-2)

INVITATION

• the definition of invitation

Something or sentences which we can use to invite

someone or group to a party or a program.

• If we want invite someone, we can use:

1. Would you like………………?

2. Can you go to…………. ……?

3. Could you go to my home…..?

4. Shall we……………………..?

5. I’d like to invite you to………?

• And to accept on invitation:

  1. OK!
  2. That’s a good idea.
  3. Thank’s for your invitation.
  4. That would be very nice. Thank you!
  5. All right!

• To refuse / decline an invitation:

  1. That’s nice unfortunately.
  2. Sorry, that wouldn’t be possible, thank’s.
  3. Sorry, because I have program.
  4. Sorry, it’s good, but I can’t present it.
  5. I’m awfully, sorry.

EXAMPLE:

Rio : Are you free this morning?

Luluk : Um…yeah! What’s up?

Rio : Let’s go to my house after school.

I have a lot a mangoes.

Luluk : Do you?

Rio : I do.

Luluk : I love mangoes very much. O.K. I’ll go with you.

Rio : I’ll meet you at 1:15 p.m. at the school gate.

Luluk : I’ll be ready then.

Use the bold-typed sentences in the dialog above to invite someone

and accept an invitation. Here are some expressions you can use to invite

Someone and accept an invitation.

INVITING Accepting an Invitation
-Shall we see the film?

-Would you come with me?

-What if we ask Jannice to join us?

-How about doing window shopping this afternoon?

-Will you come to my party on Saturday night?

-Great! Let’s do it.

-Thank you. I’d like to.

-That’s a good idea / What a nice idea!

-That would be very nice.

-I’d like to, thank you.

EXAMPLE:

Gendis : Ullin, please come to my house on Saturday afternoon.

Ullin : Any special occasion?

Gendis : Well… I will have a barbeque in the garden.

Ullin : That would be great, but I can’t. Sorry.

Gendis : Why not?

Ullin : I am leaving for Sidoarjo after school to see my aunt. She has

Just given birth to a baby.

Gendis : I see.

You can use the bold-typed sentence in the previous dialog to decline

an invitation. Here are some expressions you can use to decline an

invitation.

Declining an Invitation Responding
– I’m really sorry about that

– Sorry, I can’t. I have something to do that

day.

– That’s very kind of you, but unfortunately I

will have to miss it.

– I’d like to, but I have to baby-sit little

brother.

– It’s a pity.

– That’s O.K.

– No problem really.

– Reschedule your agenda.

APPOINTMENT

Appointment is word the to explains readiness and capability to do or not something

(for example:

please, give, help, come, to meet).

• What would we say to make or cancel an appointment:

Read the expression:

Making an appointment,

– I want to make appointment to see…….,

– I’d like to make appointment to see……,

– Can I come and see you?

– I’ll be there.

• Accept an appointment:

  1. All right!
  2. It’s a deal
  3. I’m free on
  4. I’ll be there
  5. No problem
  6. Be there on time
  7. See you right there
  8. I’ll be wait for you

• Declining an appointment

  1. Sorry, I can’t.
  2. I’d love to, but I can’t.
  3. I really want to, but I can’t.
  4. I’m sorry, I have another appointment.

EXAMPLE

Morae : I want we can meet to restaurant

to have at dinner at 07.00 p.m,

Can you?

Budi : Oh…no problem!

I’ll be wait for you.

HAPPINES EXPRESSION

Happiness Expression is an expression that used to

show that someone or people are glad have excited feelings.

Express Happiness:

☺ I’m happy

☺ I’m (very) pleased / (really) delighted

☺ I’m so glad to hear that

☺ Great!

☺ Terrific!

☺ Fantastic!

☺ Exciting!

☺ Super!

Expressing Happines: Formal

☺ Oh, I’m so happy

☺ I can’t say how pleased I’m

☺ It’s a sensational trip

☺ It’s an outstanding adventure

☺ It’s an interesting experience

☺ I’m really happy

☺ I’m happy to hear that

☺ It gives me great pleasure

☺ I’m so happy for you

☺ I’m glad to know that

☺ I’m so happy to know it

☺ My happiness for you

☺ I’m very happy for you

☺ My deep impression for you both

Let’s we see 1 example of happiness expression!

Gita : Wow!

I’m very happy because today my mother

Will to go out from hospital……

Mikha : I’m so happy for you…..

Hope, God always bless your mother…

GAINING ATTENTION

• The definition of gaining attention:

± Gaining attention is ittitude to show to ask

Attention from the other people.

± The purpose is to find attention, the other people

so the other people pay attention.

• When we try someone or group of people to pay attention to what we want to do, we may use the expression:

☼ Excuse me

☼ Listen to me, please

☼ Look at me

☼ Look at my eyes

☼ Waiter/waitress

• To respons the expressions about something, we can use:

♦ I’m listening

♦ I’m ready to hear now

♦ Let’s hear it together

♦ Let’s pay attention announcement

♦ I’m looking

For example

Via : Hey…Morae, look at me!

Morae : Yeah..I’m looking you,

What’s up?

Via : What is there different something in my eyes?

Morae : Oh…. No there.

Symphaty expression is an expression or feeling of pity and sorrow when we know and see someone or people are unlucky or have trouble and in bad condition.

♥ How we give symphaty expression to someone?

We express it directly to him/her orally or we can usec a letter or card by post also by short message servise (SMS), e-mail, television,

radio and newspaper if he/she who got the trouble is far from us.

♥ Several expression of symphaty:

♠ Oh no!

♠ Oh dear

♠ Poor you

♠ How awful

♠ How terrible

♠ Oh how awful

♠ What a naisance

♠ How pity you are

♠ Oh, what a shame

♠ I’m sorry to hear that

♠ That must have been awful

♠ I’m really sorry to hear that

♠ I’d like to express my deeper

♠ I’d like to express my deepest condolences

EXAMPLE:

Rida : My grandfa was die

Morae : I’m sorry to hear that

Rida : Thank’s

GIVING INSTRUCTION

• The definition of giving instruction:

Giving instruction is competence for to do command or request from

one people to other people or an expression that is used in order that

order person does what we instruct or request.

• Giving instruction divisible consist instruct that is:

♣ Request (order)

♣ Instruction / Prohibition

The difference between request and instructions:

→ Request

Request are often question, though indirect request may not be.

Sometimes an instruction is changed into a request by the addition

of “please” or a question tag. To make a request more polite we might

use the subjunctive form of the verb. Very often English request are

indirect. Instead of asking someone to do something, the speaker ask

if the person is able to do it. Therefore modals of ability (“can”,

“may”, etc) are very often used.

→ Request/ Order (Verb 1 + Object):

¤ Silent, please ~ (be)

¤ Read this book 1. Be quiet

¤ Speak loudly, please 2. Be careful

¤ Close the door, please 3. Be on time

→ Instructions ( also called imperatives)

Instructions require the person receiving them to do something,

or to stop doing it.

Instructions are directly addressed to the person who has to do them.

Therefore, instructions are one of the few types of English sentences

that do not need a subject.

The subject is usually “you” (understood).

If there is any doubt who should do the instruction, the “naming” form

-the vocative is used.

→ Prohibition ( Don’t + V1 + Object ):

¤ Don’t go

¤ Don’t cry

¤ Don’t noisy

¤ Don’t be lazy

¤ Don’t come here

¤ Don’t cut this paper

¤ Don’t open the door

EXAMPLE

Notoe: Pandu, please smalling voice

of the television!

It’s very noisy.

Pandu: Ok.

ANNOUCEMENTS

• The definition of announcement:

Announcement is something said, written or printed to make known

What has happened or (more often) what will happen.

In writing an announcement, keep the following points:

§ Opening

§ The title/ type of event

§ Date/ time

§ Place

§ Contact Person

We can find the announcement on television, radio, newspaper,

Wall magazine in the school, etc..

• Characteristic of announcement:

۞ Use simple present tense or simple future tense often enticement.

• The example of an announcememt:

Indonesian’s Independence Day Ceremony

On 17 th of august 2010, the school will there Indonesian’s Independence Day Ceremony.

Departure time : 07.00 a.m.

Programs : Ceremony.

The students are expected to wear nasional

uniform with a tie and a cap.

Choir Person

Morae Habella Sintha

RECOUNT TEXT

Recount text is a text is used to retell events for the purpose of informing

or entertaining.

The text is biographical recount text, the focus is on a sequence of event all

Of which related to a particular person.

• When writing recounts, we should:

  1. Focus on individual people
  2. Use words which indicate when
  3. Where to events took place
  4. Write in the past tense
  5. Use action words

Purpose (s) of the recount text are:

» to retell what happened

» to tell a series of events

» to entertain or to amuse the readers

Scructure of recount text:

Orientation

The recount generally begins on orientation it gives the readers the background information needed to understand the text.

And orientation telling the readers about:

  1. Who has involved
  2. When it happened
  3. Where it happened

Events

Then the recount unfolds with a series of events (ordered in a chronological sequence).

Re-orientation

At various stages there many be same personal comment on the incident. We call it re-orientation.

Language features:

» Use of simple past tense

» Use of personal pronoun (I, we)

» Use of temporal conjuctions (when , after, before, next, later, then)

EXAMPLE:

My Basketball Experience

When I was in Junior High School, I really loved basketball. Every Saturday afternoon, I practiced in school field wih my team and my coach. There were strong and smart players. My coach, Mr. Sentana was a kind person. But, while he was very discipline. He would grounded anyone who came late and not obeyed the team’s rules.

With Mr. Sentana, our team won many tournaments in many big cities. Our team named after our school, 67 team (from SMP 67) and we had many fans too. Now, I still love basketball and we have a team too. Baut, my parents warn me to pay attention more to my study, basketball just for hobby.

NARRATIVE TEXT

• the definition of narrative text:

A text which contains about story (fiction/non fiction/tales/folktales/

fables/myths/epic) and its plot consists of climax of the story (complication) then

followed by the resolution.

A narrative text is a text amuse, entertain and deal with actual or vicarious

experience in different ways. Narrative deal with problematic events which lead

to a crisis or turning point of some kind, which in turn finds a resolution.

• The generic sctucture of a narrative text:

Orientation

Sets the scene and introduces the participants.

Complication

A crisis arises

Resolution

The crisis is resolved, for the better or for worse.

Re-orientation

Optinal

Evaluation

A stepping back to evaluate the plight.

EXAMPLE:

The fox, the cock and the dog

One moonlight night a fox was prowling about a farmer’s hencoop and a saw a cook roosting high up beyond his search.”Good news, good news!”he cried.

“Why,What is that?” said the cock.

“King Lion has declared a universal truce.

No beast my hurt a bird henceforth, but all shall dwell together in brotherly

friendship.”

“What that is good mews,” said the cock.

And there I see someone coming, with whom we can share the good tidings.

“And so saying he craned his neck forward and looked afar off.

“It is only my Master’s Dog that is coming towards us.

What going so soon?

“He continued, as the fox began to turn away as soon as he had heard the news,

“Will you not stop and congratulate the dog on the reign of universal peace?”

PROCEDURE TEXT

• the definition of procedure text:

A procedure text is designed to describe how something is achieved through

a sequence for steps Or

Procedure text is to give someone instruction about something is achieved

through a sequence of text.

• Generic structure of procedure text:

1. GOAL : the final purpose of doing the instructions.

2. MATERIALS : ingredients, utensils, equipment, to do the instructions.

3. STEPS : a set of instructions to achieve the final purpose.

• Language features:

» Use of simple present often imperative sentences.

» Use of temporal conjuction.

» Action verbs.

O.K, guys……..

Let’s we see of procedure text!

INSTANT NOODLE

Materials:

  1. 400 ml (2 glasses) of water
  2. noodle
  3. pan
  4. seasoning (sugar, salt, pepper powder)
  5. sweet soy sauce
  6. chili sauce
  7. fried crispy onion
  8. bowl

Cooking Instruction:

  1. Boil 400 ml (2 glasses) of water in a pan.

Add noodle, stir slowly for 3 minutes.

  1. While the noodle is being cooked, put the seasoning,

sweet sauce and chili sauce in a bowl.

  1. Take the cooked noodle from the boiling water and drain it.
  2. Put the cooked noodle into the bowl with seasoning, sweet sauce

and chili sauce, mix well.

  1. Sprinkle fried crispy onion.

Noodle is ready to be served.

PAST TENSE

• The definition of simple past tense:

The simple past tense is used to talk about activities or situations

that began and ended in the past.

• Frequency adverbs:

» Last year

» yesterday

» a moment ago

» some minutes ago

» two day

» last month

» last week

» last day

» some hour ago, etc.

• Form of simple past tense:

Statement Question
S + V2 + ….

S + tobe (was/were) + …..

Did + S +V1
Negative Short answer
S + didn’t + V1 + …..

S + wasn’t/weren’t

Yes, I did

No, I didn’t

• For example:

(+) Morae sang in her class yesterday.

(-) Morae wasn’t sing in her class yesterday.

(?) Was Morae sing in her class yesterday?

PRESENT TENSE

Some functions of simple present tense:

  1. The simple present tense is used to indicate a situation that

exists right now, at the moment of speaking.

Example:

They have a big house.

  1. The simple present says something was true in the past, is true

in the present and will be true in the future it is used for general statements of fact.

Example:

God loves us.

  1. The simple present is used for habitual of everyday activity.

Example:

English class begins at 06.30 a.m.

Simple Present Pattern

  1. NOMINAL:

(+) She is a nurse.

S + tobe + compliment

(-) He is not a teacher

S + tobe + not + compliment

(?) Are they students?

Tobe + S + compliment + ?

”When using words question (W/H question such as what, who,

when, why, where, which, how). We simple put the question

word in the beginning of the sentence and followed by the form

of question pattern above.”

EXAMPLE: • Why is she angry?

• W/H question + tobe + S + compliment + ?

  1. VERBAL:

(+) S + verb1 s/es + o/c/adv

I study English every day

(-) S + do/does + not + verb1 + o/c/adv

They do not eat meat.

(?) Do/Does + subject + verb1 + o/c/adv

Do you drink beer?

GREETINGS

• Definition of greetings:
Greetings is in an expression which we can use or say when we meeting

the people, move around and introduce ourself to people or an expression

with aim to as news or says thank you and thing that is firstly is done

when will talk.

EXAMPLE: – How do you greet other people?

– Good morning.

Some example greetings which we can use:

♦ Hi

♦ Hello

♦ Bye-bye

♦ Good bye

♦ Excuse me

♦ See you later

♦ How are you?

♦ Good morning

♦ What is your name?

♦ You haven’t met me, have you?, etc.

Greeting comprise to become two kind, it is:

→ Formal greeting

→ Informal greeting

The example of formal greeting:

Good morning.

Good afternoon.

Good evening.

Good night.

The example of formal greeting:

The example of formal greeting:

Hi, Via.

Hello, Ray

WRITING: AUTOBIOGRAPHY

Morae Habella Sintha.

Hello, my name is Morae Habella Sintha. My friends usually call me

Mora. I was born in Palangkarayacity, September 8th 1994. Now, I’m 15 years old and school in senior high school 2 Palangkaraya city. Class X-2 (G’teven class).I live at badak XIX number 01, Palangkaraya. I stay with my parents. I’m the third from five children in my family.

My Father name’s is Yaimisto Piri Damek and My mother name’s name is Norwensie Ugah Baing. I have 1 sister, her name is Noviana Agusta and 3 brothers, their name are Ray Body Royano, Notoe Nuah Kaharap and Pandu Tanggar Kasimbo.

Now, Ray in Jogyakarta.

I have some hobby, that is dancing, listening to music, read, singing and eat. My ambition bea doctor and bussineswoman. Myb favourite subject Physics and Religion. My favourite film is the Passion of the Christ.

That is my autobiography. Thank you.

READING: ANALYZE CHARACTERS, SETTING ETC.

Standard Competency:

To comprehend and express the meanings of short functional and simple

identification of stories.

Indicators:

– Identifying the definition of intrinsic character.

Analyze Characters is to seek about known something characters.

  1. 1. PLOT.

Story has a certain arrangement of events which are taken to have a relation

Arrangement of events to some end- for instance to create significance, raise the level of generality, extend or complicate the meaning- is known as ‘PLOT’.

  1. 2. CHARACTER.

Characters in a work of story are generally designed to open up or explore certain aspects of human nature; They may represent only one or two traits-

A greedy old man who has forgotten how to care about others, for instance, or they may represent very complex conflicts, values and emotions.

  1. 3. SETTING.

Stories requires a setting; this an in poetry may vary from the concrete to the general. Often setting will have particular culturallycoded significance –

a sea-shore has a significance for us different from that of a dirty street corner, for instance, and different situations and significances can be constructed through its use. Settings, like characters, can used in contrasting and comparative ways to add significance, can be…., repeated with variations

and so forth.

  1. 4. THEME.

Theme is also important to, theme ie especial idea which is used as base in writing down story mostly letter than implicit.

  1. 5. POINT OF VIEW

Point of view interpreted as a position of author to events in story. There is point of view of first person singular and there is third person singular point of view.

  1. 6. LANGUAGE STYLE.

Language style is the way to typically in laying open feeling or mind through

Language in the form of oral or article.

7. MESSAGE.

VOCABS: SHAPES, PARTS OF BODY

    THE BODY = Tubuh
    1.Hair = Rambut
    2.Head = Kepala
    3.Neck = Leher
    4.Throat = Tenggorokan
    5.Shoulder = Bahu
    6.Chest = Dada
    7.Back = Punggung
    8.Waist = Pinggang
    9.Stomach = Perut
    10.Hip = Pinggul
    11.Bottom = Pantat
    12.Armpit = Ketiak
    13.Arm = Lengan
    14.Upper arm = Lengan Atas
    15.Elbow = Siku
    16.Forearm = Lengan Bawah
    17.Wrist = Pergelangan Tangan
    18.Fist = Kepalan Tangan
    19.Hand = Tangan
    20.Palm = Tapak Tangan
    21.Thumb = Ibu Jari
    22.Finger = Jari Tangan
    23.Nail = Kuku
    24.Leg = Kaki
    25.Thigh = Paha
    26.Knee = Lutut
    27.Calf = Betis
    28.Ankle = Pergelangan Kaki
    29.Foot = Kaki
    30.Heel = Tumit
    31.Instep = Kura-Kura Kaki
    32.Sole = Tapak Kaki
    33.Toes = Jari Kaki

    THE INSIDES = ORGAN DALAM
    1.Brain = Otak
    2.Windpipe = Batang Tenggorokan
    3.Heart = Jantung
    4.Lung = Paru-Paru
    5.Liver = Hati
    6.Kidney = Ginjal
    7.Intestines = Usus
    8.Bladder = Kandung Kemis
    9.Vein = Pembuluh Balik
    10.Artery = Pembuluh Nadi
    11.Muscle = Otot

    EYE = MATA
    1.Eyeball = Bola Mata
    2.Eyebrow = Alis Mata
    3.Eyelid = Kelopak Mata
    4.Eyelashes = Bulu Mata
    5.Pupil = Manik Mata
    6.Iris = Selaput Pelangi

    The Face = Wajah
    1. Eye = Mata
    2. Nose = Hidung
    3. Ear = Telinga
    4. Mouth = Mulut
    5. Cheek = Pipi
    6. Chin = Dagu
    7. Temple = Pelipis
    8. Forehead = Dahi
    9. Brow = Kening

    10. Jaw = Rahang
    11. Moustache = Kumis
    12. Beard = Janggut
    13. Tooth = Gigi (1)

    14. Teeth = Gigi (lebih dari 1)
    15. Lip = Bibir
    16. Tongue = Lidah

    SHAPES
    Oval

    Simple Straight sided shapes
    Rectangle
    Circle

    Square
    Triangle
    Simple Rounded shapes
    Shell

    Cube

    Petal

    Isosceles triagle

    Parallelogram

    Heart

    Cylinder

    Pentagon -5 sides

    Octagon-8 sides
    Rectangular Prism

    Sphere

    Cone

    Diamond

    Star

    Oval

    Teardrop

    Coffin

    Pyramid

    Equilateral triagle

    Square

    Kite

    Hexagon

    Right angled triangle

    Trapezoid

    parallelogram

    PERFECT TENSE: PPT

    • Present Perfect Tense is used for describing a past action’s effect an the present.

    » Pattern I : S + have/has + been + complement

    » Pattern II : S + have/has + V3 + O/Adv.

    • Past Perfect Tense is a kind of tense that is used to describe an action or an event

    that started in a certain time in the post and completed or finished fill certain

    time in the past too; or past perfect tense is used to express an action or an event

    that had happened before the other event or action happened.

    » Pattern : S + had + V3 + Complement

    • Past Future Perfect Tense is used to assert an action or an event that will

    happened or will finished at the definite time at the future.

    » Pattern I :S (except I) + will/shall + have + been + Complement

    » Pattern II :S + will/shall + have + V3 + O/Adv.

    • Past Future Perfect Tense is used to assert an action or an event that will

    happened before or at the other event happened at the past future.

    » Pattern I :S + would/should + have + been + Complement

    » Pattern II :S + would/should + have + V3 + O/Adv.

    LISTENING: MAKE ME A COPY, PLEASE

    Description:

    Often time student are not able to communicating

    clearly what they would lIke to say.

    It is purpose of this lesson to help student understand to

    need to be articulate and precise when explain steps to another student.

    In addition the student listening will learn to be a more affective listener.

    GOAL :

    Students will understand to need to be articulate when communicating

    Objectives:

    1. The student will use descriptive eplications to guide another student in completing the task.

    2. The student will explain the importance of being articulate and the frustration when directions are unclear.

    BACKGROUND INFORMATION:

    This activity will teach student to explain what they see and guide another student in reproducing the drawing by what they are

    CONCEPTS: Student will able to :

    1. Explain and articulate the steps to reproducing a drawing.
    2. Follow directions as closely as possible
    3. Communicate with follow students to accomplish the given task

    SPEAKING: SPEECH

    # Direct Speech:

    Saying exactly what someone has said is called direct speech (sometimes

    called quoted speech) here what a person says appears within quotation marks

    (“…”) and should be word for word.

    # Indirect Speech:

    Indirect Speech (sometimes called reported speech), doesn’t use quotation

    marks to enclose what the person said and it doesn’t have to be word for word.

    When reporting speech the tense usually changes. This is because when we use

    reported speech, we are usually talking about a time in the past (because obviously the person who spoke originally spoke in the past). The verbs therefore usually have to be in the past too.

    For example:

    Direct Speech

    “ I’m going to the cinema”, he said.

    Indirect Speech

    He said he was going to the cinema.

    ADVERTISEMENT

    Advertisement is a form of communication used to help sell products and service.

    * Function of advertisement:

    1. Promotion

    2. Communication

    3. Information

    We can find the advertisement on newspaper, tabloid, television, magazine, etc.

    * In making an advertisement, must:

    1. The contents of advertisement must objective and honest

    2. Short and clean.

    3. Doesn’t allude other group or procedure

    4. Use word that polite and logical

    Ikuti

    Kirimkan setiap pos baru ke Kotak Masuk Anda.